We are startled by the news of a fire or work accident almost every day. However, we continue our lives from where they left off and thinking that such negativities would never happen to us, as if nothing had happened. I think this is due to human nature. Electrical energy is the indispensable source of our life. On the other hand, when using this energy, whether at home or in the workplace, the dangers that may arise from the electrical device used at that moment, the wiring circuit of the device and may be exposed at any time do not end with counting. In this study, it is aimed to manage the negativities that may arise from the tools and equipment we use in homes and workplaces, with simple risk perception. In the legislation of our country, the works in this field are defined by the "Electricity Internal Facilities Regulation and the Regulation on Grounding in Electrical Installations" and the materials and other equipment to be used in electrical installations by the regulations published by the Turkish Standards Institute (TSE) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
Accordingly, the work to be carried out in the design and installation of electrical interior facilities and the authorized professionals to carry out these studies are defined. Although it is not included in domestic facilities and high current facilities in our country, with a regulation issued by the Ministry of National Education, "scientists are given design authority". The draft "Electricity Interior Installations Regulation", which was prepared by the Chamber of Electrical Engineers (EMO) about 8 years ago and submitted to the ministry and approved by universities, public institutions and organizations and scientific circles, meets international norms and standards, is not published with the political lobby pressure of scientists. This situation not only causes child deaths that occur in ornamental pools every year, but also causes hundreds of houses and workplaces and historical and cultural heritage to be burned, and loss of life and property.
We can list potential electrical hazards in homes and workplaces as follows:
- Hazards arising from building electrical installations,
- Hazards arising from electrical devices and machinery
- Dangers from personal mistakes
The dangers arising from the electrical installation used are as follows:
- Use of Residual Current Switch (RCD) or Leakage Current Relay as known in the society according to the Internal Installation Regulation
is required. It is known that this device is not used in old buildings and the building grounding system has lost its function over the years. As a result, in the electrical appliance used (Refrigerator, washing machine, dishwasher, electrical
water heater, lamp circuit, etc.), flow of a fault current through the human, which will create a lower resistance.
It is inevitable to experience an electric shock. Residual Current Switches Should Be Controlled In terms of public life and property safety, it should be checked that Residual Current Switches are installed in buildings and workplaces and that they are in working condition (relevant administration, municipal authorities). It is known that electric heaters are used intensively in the winter months with the effect of cold weather. It is risky to use high current devices such as electric heaters with extension cables. Because the multi-socket assemblies with extension cables, which are sold ready-made and preferred by the public due to their cheapness, are non-standard productions. The cable section and socket assembly that is not suitable for the current drawn by the heaters overheats and creates a fire hazard.
Phase and Neutral Planning
- Electric lamp switches in residences must break the phase circuit. If glowing occurs even though the lamp switch is turned off, the lamp switch cuts off the neutral circuit, and the phase continues to exist in the lamp holder circuit continuously. In this case, the lamp switch is turned off and the lamp is replaced, since the phase circuit is not interrupted, the electricity
It is risky as the possibility of the impact continues. It should be checked by an authorized electrician that the lamp switches break the phase circuit.
- If the invoice of a mistake commonly applied by scientists is the error current in the machine
employees, casualties occur. The name of the risk is "reset". In other words, it refers to the combination of neutral and ground circuit. TT earthing system is applied in the distribution network of our country. The grounding propagation resistance must be very low in the TT type network, and most of the time a grounding facility where the calculated diffusion resistance values can be achieved cannot be built or requires large investment.